without


without
without
1. Unlike the corresponding physical meaning of within (= inside), the original meaning of without, ‘outside’ (preposition and adverb), is no longer much used, although it will be familiar from literary contexts

• (There is a green hill far away, Without a city wall —Cecil Frances Alexander, 1848

• The throng without was…becoming more numerous and more savage —Macaulay, 1849).

The primary current uses are in the sense ‘lacking, not having’ (I came without an umbrella) and governing verbal nouns (She left without saying anything).
2. Also defunct is the use of without as a conjunction meaning ‘unless’, ‘except when’, although it still occurs in regional or dialect use and will be found occasionally in modern fiction:

• I can truthfully say he never sat an exam without he was bad with his asthma —Pat Barker, 1991.

3.

• How'd you like to make yourself a passel [= parcel] of money without hardly havin' to do any work? —D. Westheimer, 1973.

The use of without + hardly, which is a combination of a negative and an implied negative, is non-standard. The standard expression is almost without (or in some contexts, with hardly:

• His eyes flickered to left and right, with hardly a turn of the head —T. Barnes, 1991).


Modern English usage. 2014.

Synonyms:

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Without — With*out , prep. [OE. withoute, withouten, AS. wi[eth]?tan; wi[eth] with, against, toward + ?tan outside, fr. ?t out. See {With}, prep., {Out}.] [1913 Webster] 1. On or at the outside of; out of; not within; as, without doors. [1913 Webster]… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Without me — Single par Eminem extrait de l’album The Eminem Show voir l article en anglais pour l image …   Wikipédia en Français

  • without — [with out′, without′] adv. [ME withuten < OE withutan < with, WITH + utan, from outside, without < ut, OUT] 1. on the outside; externally 2. outside a building or place; out of doors prep. 1. Now Rare at, on, to, or toward the outside of …   English World dictionary

  • Without Me — Single par Eminem extrait de l’album The Eminem Show voir l article en anglais pour l image Durée …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Without me — «Without Me» Sencillo de Eminem del álbum The Eminem Show Formato Disco compacto Género(s) Hip hop, comedy hip hop Duración 4:50 (versión del álbum) 4:14 (versión radial) …   Wikipedia Español

  • Without Me — Eminem Veröffentlichung 21. Mai 2002 Länge 4:50 Genre(s) Hip Hop Text M. Mathers, K. Bell, J. Bass, M …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Without — With*out , adv. 1. On or art the outside; not on the inside; not within; outwardly; externally. [1913 Webster] Without were fightings, within were fears. 2 Cor. vii. 5. [1913 Webster] 2. Outside of the house; out of doors. [1913 Webster] The… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Without — With*out , conj. Unless; except; introducing a clause. [1913 Webster] You will never live to my age without you keep yourselves in breath with exercise, and in heart with joyfulness. Sir P. Sidney. [1913 Webster] Note: Now rarely used by good… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • without — O.E. wiðutan, lit. against the outside (opposite of within), see WITH (Cf. with) + OUT (Cf. out). As a word expressing lack or want of something (opposite of with), attested from c.1200. In use by late 14c. as a conjunction, short for without… …   Etymology dictionary

  • without — ► PREPOSITION 1) not accompanied by or having the use of. 2) in which the action mentioned does not happen. 3) archaic or literary outside. ► ADVERB archaic or literary ▪ outside. ► CONJUNCTION archaic or dialect 1) …   English terms dictionary